College of Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary Microbiology and Pathology


  1. Albini, S., W. Zimmermann, F. Neff, B. Ehlers, H. Hani, H. Li, D. Hussy, C. Casura, M. Engels, and M. Ackermann.2003. Porcine malignant catarrhal fever: diagnostic findings and first detection of the pathogenic agent in diseased swine in Switzerland. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 145:61-68.

  2. Albini, S., W. Zimmermann, F. Neff, B. Ehlers, H. Hani, H. Li, D. Hussy, M. Engels, and M. Ackermann. 2003. Identification and quantification of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in fresh and stored tissues of pigs with symptoms of porcine malignant catarrhal fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:900-904.

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  13. Collery, P. and A. Foley 1996. An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in the Republic of Ireland. Vet. Rec.139:16-17.

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  15. Crawford, T. B., H. Li, and D. T. O'Toole. 1999. Diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever by PCR using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 11:111-116.

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  24. Hamilton, A. F. 1990. Account of three outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in the Republic of Ireland. Vet. Rec. 127:231-232.

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  26. Hatkin, J. 1980. Endemic malignant catarrhal fever at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. J. Wildl. Dis. 16:439-443.

  27. Heuschele, W. P. 1988. Malignant catarrhal fever - a review of a serious disease hazard for exotic and domestic ruminants. Zoologische Garten 58:123-133.

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  30. Katz, J., B. S. Seal, and J. Ridpath. 1991. Molecular diagnosis of alcelaphine herpesvirus (malignant catarrhal fever) infections by nested amplification of viral DNA in bovine blood buffy coat specimens. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 3:193-198.

  31. Keel, M. K., J. G. Patterson, T. H. Noon, G. A. Bradley, and J. K. Collins. 2003. Caprine herpesvirus-2 in association with naturally occurring malignant catarrhal fever in captive sika deer (Cervus nippon). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest 15:179-183.

  32.  Kleiboeker, S. B., M. A. Miller,S. K. Schommer, J. A. Ramos-Vara, M. Boucher, and S. E. Turnquist. 2002. Detection and multigenic characterization of a herpesvirus associated with malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:1311-1318.

  33. Li, H., N. Dyer, J. Keller, and T. B. Crawford. 2000. Newly recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:1313-1318.

  34. Li, H., Y. Hua, G. Snowder, and T. B. Crawford. 2001. Levels of ovine herpesvirus 2 DNA in nasal secretions and blood of sheep: implications for transmission. Vet. Microbiol. 79:301-310.

  35. Li, H., J. Keller, D. P. Knowles, and T. B. Crawford. 2001. Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats. J. Gen. Virol. 82:227-232.

  36. Li, H., T. C. McGuire, U. U. Muller-Doblies, and T. B. Crawford. 2001. A simpler, more sensitive competitive inhibition ELISA for detection of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever viruses. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 13:361-364.

  37. Li, H., G. Snowder, D. T. O'Toole, and T. B. Crawford. 1998. Transmission of ovine herpesvirus 2 in lambs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:223-226.

  38. Li, H., A. Wunschmann, J. Keller, D. G. Hall, and T. B. Crawford. 2002. Caprine herpesvirus-2 associated malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 15:46-49.

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  40. Liggitt, H. D. and J. C. DeMartini. 1980. The pathomorphology of malignant catarrhal fever. II. Multisystemic epithelial lesions. Vet. Pathol. 17:73-83.

  41. Loken, T., M. Aleksandersen, H. Reid, and I. Pow. 1998. Malignant catarrhal fever caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 in pigs in Norway. Vet. Rec. 143:464-467.

  42. Mare, C. J. 1977. Malignant catarrhal fever. An emerging disease of cattle in the USA. Proc. Ann. Meet. USAHA81:151-157.

  43. Mettam, R. W. M. 1923. Snotsiekte in cattle. Reports of the Director of Veterinary Education and Research, Union of South Africa. 9 and 10, 395-430.

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  47. Milne, E. M. and H. W. Reid 1990. Recovery of a cow from malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Rec. 126:640-641.

  48. Moore, P. S., S. J. Gao, G. Dominguez, E. Cesarman, O. Lungu, D. M. Knowles, R. Garber, P. E. Pellett, D. J. McGeoch, and Y. Chang. 1996. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Virol.70:549-558.

  49. Muller-Doblies, U. U., J. Egli, H. Li, U. Braun, and M. Ackermann. 2001. [Malignant catarrhal fever in Switzerland. 1.Epidemiology]. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 143:173-183.

  50. Mushi, E. Z., L. Karstad, and D. M. Jessett. 1980. Isolation of bovine malignant catarrhal fever virus from ocular and nasal secretions of wildebeest calves. Res. Vet. Sci. 29:168-171.

  51. Mushi, E. Z., P. B. Rossiter, D. Jessett, and L. Karstad. 1981. Isolation and characterization of a herpesvirus from topi (Damaliscus korrigum, Ogilby). J. Comp. Path. 91:63-68.

  52. Mushi, E. Z. and F. R. Rurangirwa. 1981. Epidemiology of bovine malignant catarrhal fevers, a review. Vet. Res. Commun. 5:127-142.

  53. Mushi, E. Z. and F. R. Rurangirwa. 1981. Malignant catarrhal fever virus shedding by infected cattle. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 29:111-112.

  54. Mushi, E. Z., F. R. Rurangirwa, and L. Karstad. 1981. Shedding of malignant catarrhal fever virus by wildebeest calves. Vet. Microbiol. 6:281-286.

  55. O'Toole, D., H. Li, C. Sourk, D. L. Montgomery, and T. B. Crawford.2002. Malignant catarrhal fever in a bison (Bison bison) feedlot, 1993-2000.  J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 14:183-193.

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  59. Penny, C. 1998. Recovery of cattle from malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Rec. 142:227.

  60. Piercy, S. E. 1954. Studies in Bovine Malignant Catarrh.  V. The Role of Sheep in the Transmission of the Disease. Br. Vet. J. 110:508-516.

  61. Piercy, S. E. 1954. Studies in bovine malignant catarrh. IV. Immunity and Vaccination. Br. Vet. J. 110:508-516.

  62. Pierson, R. E., J. Storz, A. E. McChesney, and D. Thake. 1974. Experimental transmission of malignant catarrhal fever. Am. J. Vet. Res. 35:523-525.

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