1. Albini, S., W. Zimmermann, F. Neff, B. Ehlers, H. Hani, H. Li, D. Hussy, C. Casura, M. Engels, and M. Ackermann.2003. Porcine malignant catarrhal fever: diagnostic findings and first detection of the pathogenic agent in diseased swine in Switzerland. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 145:61-68.

  2. Albini, S., W. Zimmermann, F. Neff, B. Ehlers, H. Hani, H. Li, D. Hussy, M. Engels, and M. Ackermann. 2003. Identification and quantification of ovine gammaherpesvirus 2 DNA in fresh and stored tissues of pigs with symptoms of porcine malignant catarrhal fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:900-904.

  3. Barnard, B. J., J. J. van der Lugt, and E. Z. Mushi. 1994. Malignant Catarrhal Fever, p. 946-957. In J. A. Coetzer, G. R. Thomson, and R. C. Tustin (eds.), Infectious diseases of livestock with special reference to Southern Africa. Oxford University Press, Cape Town, SA.

  4. Barnard, B. J. H. 1990. Epizootology of wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever: possible transmission among cows and their calves in the North-Western Transvaal. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 57:201-204.

  5. Barnard, B. J. H. and H. E. van de Pypekamp. 1988. Wildebeest-derived malignant catarrhal fever: unusual epidemiology in South Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res.55:69-71.

  6. Baxter, S. I. F., I. Pow, A. Bridgen, and H. W. Reid. 1993. PCR detection of the sheep-associated agent of malignant catarrhal fever. Arch. Virol. 132:145-159.

  7. Baxter, S. I. F., A. Wiyono, I. Pow, and H. W. Reid. 1997. Identification of ovine herpesvirus-2 infection in sheep. Arch. Virol. 142:823-831.

  8. Beatson, N. S., P. F. Fennessy, and K. R. Drew. 1985. Field observations of malignant catarrhal fever in red deer in New Zealand. Biology of deer production New Zealand Agricultural Bulletin:13-18.

  9. Bergquam, E. P., N. Avery, S. M. Shiigi, M. K. Axthelm, and S. W. Wong. 1999. Rhesus rhadinovirus establishes a latent infection in B lymphocytes in vivo. J Virol 73:7874-7876.

  10. Berkman, R. N. and R. D. Barner. 1958. Bovine Malignant Catarrhal Fever. I. Its Occurrence in Michigan. J. Am.Vet. Assoc. 132:243-248.

  11. Castro, A. E. and Heuschele, W. P. 1985. Conference on Malignant Catarrhal Fever. Bov. Pract. 20:162-168.

  12. Clark, K. A., Robinson, R. M., Marburger, R. G., Jones, L. P., and Orchard, J. H. 1970. Malignant catarrhal fever in Texas cervids. J. Wildl. Dis. 6:376-383.

  13. Collery, P. and A. Foley 1996. An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in the Republic of Ireland. Vet. Rec. 139:16-17.

  14. Crawford, T. B., H. Li, S. R. Rosenberg, R. W. Norhausen, and M. M. Garner. J.Am.Vet.Med.Assoc. 211:843-847.

  15. Crawford, T. B., H. Li, and D. T. O'Toole. 1999. Diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever by PCR using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.11:111-116.

  16. Daubney, R. and J. R. Hudson. 1936. Transmission experiments with bovine malignant catarrh. J Comp. Pathol. 49:63-89.

  17. Dobberstein, J.1925. Über Veränderungen des Gehirnes beim bösartigen Katarrhfieber des Rindes. Dtsch. Tierärztl. Wschr. 33:867-871.

  18. Ehlers, B., K. Borchers, C. Grund, K. Frolich, H. Ludwig, and H. J. Buhk. 1999. Detection of new DNA polymerase genes of known and potentially novel herpesviruses by PCR with degenerate and deoxyinosine-substituted primers. Virus Genes 18:211-220.

  19. Erasmus, B. J. 1986. Malignant catarrhal fever. Biennial Report of the Veterinary Research Institute Onderstepoort, 1984-1985 54-55.

  20. Farquharson, J. 1946. Malignant Catarrhal Fever. Vet. J. 102:127-130.

  21. Götze, R.1930. Untersuchungen über das bösartigen Katarrhalfieber des Rindes III. Dtsch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr. 38:487-491.

  22. Götze, R. and J. Liess. 1929. Erfolgreiche Übertragungsversuche des bösartigen Katarrhalfieber von Rind zu Rind. Identität mit dem Sudafrikanischen Snotsiekte. Dtsch. Tierärztl. Wochenschr. 37:433-437.

  23. Hamdy, F. M., A. H. Dardiri, C. Mebus, R. E. Pierson, and D. Johnson. 1978. Etiology of malignant catarrhal fever outbreak in Minnesota. Proc. Annl. Meet. USAHA.82:248-267.

  24. Hamilton, A. F. 1990. Account of three outbreaks of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle in the Republic of Ireland. Vet. Rec. 127:231-232.

  25. Harris, R. E., K. H. Christiansen, and M. H. Blunt. 1978. Observations on the epidemiology of malignant catarrhal fever. N. Z. Vet. J. 26:86-87.

  26. Hatkin, J. 1980. Endemic malignant catarrhal fever at the San Diego Wild Animal Park. J. Wildl. Dis. 16:439-443.

  27. Heuschele, W. P. 1988. Malignant catarrhal fever - a review of a serious disease hazard for exotic and domestic ruminants. Zoologische Garten 58:123-133.

  28. Huck, R. A., A. Shand, P. J. Allsop, and A. B. Paterson. 1961. Malignant Catarrh of Deer. Vet. Rec. 73:457-465.

  29. Kalunda, M., A. H. Dardiri, and K. M. Lee. 1981. Malignant catarrhal fever. I. Response of American cattle to malignant catarrhal virus isolated in Kenya. Can. J. Comp. Med. 45:70-76.

  30. Katz, J., B. S. Seal, and J. Ridpath. 1991. Molecular diagnosis of alcelaphine herpesvirus (malignant catarrhal fever) infections by nested amplification of viral DNA in bovine blood buffy coat specimens. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 3:193-198.

  31. Keel, M. K., J. G. Patterson, T. H. Noon, G. A. Bradley, and J. K. Collins. 2003. Caprine herpesvirus-2 in association with naturally occurring malignant catarrhal fever in captive sika deer (Cervus nippon). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest 15:179-183.

  32. Kleiboeker, S. B., M. A. Miller,S. K. Schommer, J. A. Ramos-Vara, M. Boucher, and S. E. Turnquist. 2002. Detection and multigenic characterization of a herpesvirus associated with malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Missouri. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:1311-1318.

  33. Li, H., N. Dyer, J. Keller, and T. B. Crawford. 2000. Newly recognized herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:1313-1318.

  34. Li, H., Y. Hua, G. Snowder, and T. B. Crawford. 2001. Levels of ovine herpesvirus 2 DNA in nasal secretions and blood of sheep: implications for transmission. Vet. Microbiol. 79:301-310.

  35. Li, H., J. Keller, D. P. Knowles, and T. B. Crawford. 2001. Recognition of another member of the malignant catarrhal fever virus group: an endemic gammaherpesvirus in domestic goats. J. Gen. Virol. 82:227-232.

  36. Li, H., T. C. McGuire, U. U. Muller-Doblies, and T. B. Crawford. 2001. A simpler, more sensitive competitive inhibition ELISA for detection of antibody to malignant catarrhal fever viruses. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 13:361-364.

  37. Li, H., G. Snowder, D. T. O'Toole, and T. B. Crawford. 1998. Transmission of ovine herpesvirus 2 in lambs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:223-226.

  38. Li, H., A. Wunschmann, J. Keller, D. G. Hall, and T. B. Crawford. 2002. Caprine herpesvirus-2 associated malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 15:46-49.

  39.  Liggitt, H. D. and J. C.DeMartini. 1980. The pathomorphology of malignant catarrhal fever. I. Generalized lymphoid vasculitis. Vet. Pathol. 17:58-72.

  40. Liggitt, H. D. and J. C. DeMartini. 1980. The pathomorphology of malignant catarrhal fever. II. Multisystemic epithelial lesions. Vet. Pathol. 17:73-83.

  41. Loken, T., M. Aleksandersen, H. Reid, and I. Pow. 1998. Malignant catarrhal fever caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 in pigs in Norway. Vet. Rec. 143:464-467.

  42. Mare, C. J. 1977. Malignant catarrhal fever. An emerging disease of cattle in the USA. Proc. Ann. Meet. USAHA 81:151-157.

  43. Mettam, R. W. M. 1923. Snotsiekte in cattle. Reports of the Director of Veterinary Education and Research, Union of South Africa. 9 and 10, 395-430.

  44. Metzler, A. E. 1991. The malignant catarrhal fever complex. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 14:107-124.

  45. Metzler, A. E. and H. R. Burri.1990. Aetiology and epidemiology of malignant catarrhal fever, a review. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 132:161-172.

  46. Michel, A. L., J. J. van der Lugt, R. G. Bengis, and V. deVos. 1997. Detection of AHV-1 DNA in lung sections from blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) calves by in situ hybridization. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 64:235-238.

  47. Milne, E. M. and H. W. Reid 1990. Recovery of a cow from malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Rec. 126:640-641.

  48. Moore, P. S., S. J. Gao, G. Dominguez, E. Cesarman, O. Lungu, D. M. Knowles, R. Garber, P. E. Pellett, D. J. McGeoch, and Y. Chang. 1996. Primary characterization of a herpesvirus agent associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. J. Virol. 70:549-558.

  49. Muller-Doblies, U. U., J. Egli, H. Li, U. Braun, and M. Ackermann. 2001. [Malignant catarrhal fever in Switzerland. 1.Epidemiology]. Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 143:173-183.

  50. Mushi, E. Z., L. Karstad, and D. M. Jessett. 1980. Isolation of bovine malignant catarrhal fever virus from ocular and nasal secretions of wildebeest calves. Res. Vet. Sci. 29:168-171.

  51. Mushi, E. Z., P. B. Rossiter, D. Jessett, and L. Karstad. 1981. Isolation and characterization of a herpesvirus from topi (Damaliscus korrigum, Ogilby). J. Comp. Path. 91:63-68.

  52. >Mushi, E. Z. and F. R. Rurangirwa. 1981. Epidemiology of bovine malignant catarrhal fevers, a review. Vet. Res. Commun. 5:127-142.

  53. Mushi, E. Z. and F. R. Rurangirwa. 1981. Malignant catarrhal fever virus shedding by infected cattle. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa 29:111-112.

  54. Mushi, E. Z., F. R. Rurangirwa, and L. Karstad. 1981. Shedding of malignant catarrhal fever virus by wildebeest calves. Vet. Microbiol. 6:281-286.

  55. O'Toole, D., H. Li, C. Sourk, D. L. Montgomery, and T. B. Crawford.2002. Malignant catarrhal fever in a bison (Bison bison) feedlot, 1993-2000.  J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 14:183-193.

  56. O'Toole, D. T., H. Li, D. Miller, W. R. Williams, and T. B. Crawford. 1997. Chronic and recovered cases of sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever in cattle. Vet. Rec. 140:519-524.

  57. O'Toole, D. T., H. Li, S. Roberts, J. Rovnak, J. DeMartini, J. Cavender, B. Williams, and T. Crawford. 1995. Chronic generalized obliterative arteriopathy in cattle: a sequel to sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 7:108-121.

  58. Orsborn, J. S., C. J. Mare, J. L. Ayers, and R. E. Reed. 1977. Diagnostic features of malignant catarrhal fever outbreaks in the western United States. Proc. Am. Assoc.Vet. Lab. Diagn. 20:215-223.

  59. Penny, C. 1998. Recovery of cattle from malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Rec. 142:227.

  60. Piercy, S. E. 1954. Studies in Bovine Malignant Catarrh. V. The Role of Sheep in the Transmission of the Disease. Br. Vet. J. 110:508-516.

  61. Piercy, S. E. 1954. Studies in bovine malignant catarrh. IV. Immunity and Vaccination. Br. Vet. J. 110:508-516.

  62. Pierson, R. E., J. Storz, A. E. McChesney, and D. Thake. 1974. Experimental transmission of malignant catarrhal fever. Am. J. Vet. Res. 35:523-525.

  63. Pierson, R. E., D. Thake, A. E. McChesney, and J. Storz. 1973. An epizootic of malignant catarrhal fever in feedlot cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 163:349-350.

  64. Plowright, W. Studies on Malignant Catarrhal Fever of Cattle. 1-336. 1964. University of Pretoria.

  65. Plowright, W. 1965. Malignant Catarrhal Fever in East Africa. Res. Vet. Sci. 6:57-83.

  66. Plowright, W. 1968. Malignant Catarrhal Fever. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 152:795-806.

  67. Plowright, W. 1981. Herpesviruses of wild ungulates including malignant catarrhal fever virus, p. 126-146. In J. W. Davis, L. H. Karstad, and D. O. Trainer (eds.), Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

  68. Plowright, W. 1986. Malignant catarrhal fever. Revue Scientifique et Technique, Office International des Epizooties 5:897-958.

  69. Plowright, W. 1990. Malignant catarrhal fever virus, p. 123-150. In Z. Dinter and B. Morein (eds.), Virus Infections of Ruminants. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., New York.

  70. Plowright, W., R. D. Ferris, and G. R. Scott. 1960. Blue Wildebeest and the Aetiological Agent of Bovine Malignant Catarrhal Fever Virus. Nature 188:1167-1169.

  71. Plowright, W., K. A. J. Herniman, D. M. Jessett, M. Kalunda, and C. S. Rampton. 1975. Immunisation of cattle against the herpesvirus of malignant catarrhal fever: failure of inactivated culture vaccines with adjuvant. Res. Vet. Sci. 19:159-166.

  72. Plowright, W., M. Kalunda, D. M. Jessett, and K. A. J. Herniman. 1972. Congenital infection of cattle with the herpesvirus causing malignant catarrhal fever. Res. Vet. Sci. 13:37-45.

  73. Reid, H. W. and D. Buxton. 1989. Malignant Catarrhal Fever and the Gammaherpesvirinae of Bovidae, p. 116-162. InG. Wittmann (ed.), Herpesvirus Diseases of Cattle, Horses, and Pigs. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

  74. Reid, H. W., D. Buxton, I. Pow, and J. Finlayson. 1986. Malignant catarrhal fever: experimental transmission of the 'sheep-associated' form of the disease from cattle and deer to cattle, deer, rabbits and hamsters. Res. Vet. Sci. 41:76-81.

  75. Rossiter, P. B. 1985. Immunology and immunopathology of malignant catarrhal fever. Prog. Vet. Microbiol. Immunol. 1:121-144.

  76. Rossiter, P. B., D. M. Jessett, and L. Karstad. 1983. Role of wildebeest fetal membranes and fluids in the transmission of malignant catarrhal fever virus. Vet. Rec. 113:150-152.

  77. Rweyemamu, M. M., L. Karstad, E. Z. Mushi, J. C. Otema, D. M. Jessett, L. Rowe, S. Drevemo, and J. G. Grootenhuis. 1974. Malignant catarrhal fever virus in nasal secretions of wildebeest: a probable mechanism for virus transmission. J. Wildl. Dis. 10:478-487.

  78. Schultheiss, P. C., J. K. Collins, T. R. Spraker, and J. C. DeMartini. 2000. Epizootic malignant catarrhal fever in three bison herds: differences from cattle and association with ovine herpesvirus-2. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 12:497-502.

  79. Selman, I. E. 1987. The epidemiology of malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Ann. 27:98-102.

  80. Selman, I. E., A. Wiseman, M. Murray, and N. G. Wright. 1974. A clinico-pathological study of bovine malignant catarrhal fever in Great Britain. Vet. Rec. 94:483-490.

  81. Selman, I. E., A. Wiseman, N. G. Wright, and M. Murray. 1978. Transmission studies with bovine malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Rec. 102:252-257.

  82. Stadtfeld, H. and K. Haberkorn 1986. Rabies in cattle. Tierarztl. Prax. 14:325-331.

  83. Tham, K. M. 1997. Molecular and clinicopathological diagnosis of malignant catarrhal fever in cattle, deer and buffalo in New Zealand. Vet. Rec. 141:303-306.

  84. Whiteley, H. E., S. Young, H. D. Liggitt, and J. C. DeMartini. 1985. Ocular lesions of bovine malignant catarrhal fever. Vet. Pathol. 22:219-225.

  85. Wyand, D. S., C. F. Helmboldt, and S. W. Nielsen. 1971. Malignant catarrhal fever in white-tailed deer. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 159:605-610.

  86. Zimmer, M. A., C. P. McCoy, and J. M. Jensen. 1981. Comparative pathology of the African form of malignant catarrhal fever in captive Indian gaur and domestic cattle. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 179:1130-1135.